Alkali bee-Less-significant parasites

Cuckoo bees (Nomada suavis and Triepeolous spp.)

Humpbacked fly (Phalacrotophora halictorum)

Picturewinged flies (Euxesta rubida and E. scutellaris)

Robber flies (Promachus aldrichii and P. nigripes, Diogmites grossus, and Proctacanthus milbertii)

Tiphiid wasp (Myrmosula spp.)

Velvet ant (Dasymutilla spp.)

Wedgeshaped beetle (Ripiphorus solidaginis)

Management These pests do not require control.

For more information:

C. Johansen, D. Mayer, A. Stanford, C. Kious. 1982. Alkali Bees: Their Biology and Management for Alfalfa Seed Production in the Pacific Northwest. Washington State University. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication (15-23)